Reed-Solomon Address Format

The short form of Signum account numbers (addresses) are of the form:  S-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXX

This format is referred to as a Reed-Solomon address. It is the default format in the official client, where X is a non-ambiguous number or alphabetic character (the letters I and O and the numbers 1 and 0 are not used).  Addresses are always prefixed with “S-“and hyphens are used to separate the address into 4, 4, 4, and 5 characters. The addresses are NOT case-sensitive.

This form improves reliability by introducing redundancy to detect and correct errors when entering and using Signum account numbers.


The internal format for Signum account numbers is a completely numeric 64-bit identifier derived from the account’s private key. This format is error-prone because a single error when typing a character can result in transactions being unintentionally sent to the wrong account.

Reed-Solomon error-correction codes largely remedy this issue by adding redundancy to addresses.  The Reed-Solomon format was chosen because:

  • the account collision rate is the same as the default address format;
  • the system’s basic error correction can be used to assist users in typing addresses;
  • some programming languages do not have a native MD5 hashing function, and the Reed-Solomon implementation is simpler than MD5.

Benefits of Reed-Solomon addresses

  • The chance of a random address collision, using Signum’s implementation of 4 “check-bits,” is 1 in a million (20-bit redundancy).
  • It allows up to 2 typos in an address to be corrected.
  • It guarantees that up to 4 typographical errors can be detected.
  • The address length is always 17 characters.
  • The “S” prefix makes the addresses easily recognizable as belonging to Signum.

Encoding of Signum Reed-Solomon addresses

  • Case is not enforced in this format, but for unification, all addresses are displayed using the upper case.
  • Dashes split addresses into groups of 4 characters and a final group of 5 characters, but this is not enforced during address input.
  • The old numeric addresses are also recognized and supported for backward compatibility.

Example RS Addresses:

  • S-3DH5-DSAE-4WQ7-3LPSE
  • S-K4G2-FF32-WLL3-QBGEL

Technical details

The first and most important rule is that no error-correction scheme is infallible:  Error correction is a useful tool, but it cannot be relied upon haphazardly.

The problem is somewhat counter-intuitive: either you can do a simple yes/no check of address validity, which will give you one in a million collision, or you can try and correct errors. You cannot do both.

The problem here is that the Reed-Solomon algorithm is only guaranteed to correct up to 2 errors. If more than 2 errors are present in an address entry, it will produce false positives with a probability of around 10%, and transactions will still be sent to incorrect addresses.

Think of the algorithm as error-guessing, instead, to assist users with spotting errors.

Reed-Solomon (RS) addresses for Signum are encoded as follows:

  • Take the original 64-bit account ID, add 1 zero bit to get 65, then split it into thirteen 5-bit “symbols” (65 / 5 = 13).
  • Order the symbols from lowest bit to highest bits, in little-endian order, i.e., bits 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, etc., up to 60-64.
  • Append 4 symbols of parity (20 bits), produced by the Reed-Solomon encoding of our 13 symbols from step one (which are left untouched). This produces a 13 + 4 = 17 symbol codeword.
  • Scramble the codeword symbols in a predefined order and encode them 1-to-1 with an alphabet of 32 characters, splitting them into groups by dashes.

To contact the development team or request assistance with anything related to this project, please contact us on the Signum Discord channel.

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